牽狗用狗鍊~~隨手清狗便
保護第三人~~愛你也愛牠



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最近一項關於犬種攻擊性的研究指出, 小型犬(例如吉娃娃與臘腸狗)較具攻擊性,
而某些特定犬種例如黃金獵犬與拉布拉多獵犬則是性情溫和親人的.

雖然某些狗看似比較愛吵架, 這個研究卻驗證了一句老格言「天下無惡犬」(There are no bad dogs),
因為有攻擊傾向的狗通常也有其他很好的特質, 例如看家本領高.

賓州大學研究學者Deborah Duffy教授指出:
"狗的性格就像人的性格一樣, 有好的特質也有壞的部份."

Duffy教授與James Serpell教授及台灣師範大學的許鈺鸚教授所做的這個犬種攻擊性研究,
是針對兩組不同的研究群體, 收集基本的狗狗資料與行為相關的資料.

第一個研究群體包含11種AKC認可的犬種俱樂部,
例如The Labrador Retriever Club和The English Springer Spaniel Field Trial Association.

第二個研究群體則是來自於大學網站的線上調查.

由於在這兩個研究群體所得到的資料及結論一致,
並且為此類研究(有關犬種攻擊性)當中資料最廣泛且其結論是經得起重覆驗證的,
這項研究即將刊登於Applied Animal Behavior Science期刊.

在這個犬種攻擊性列表之中,
吉娃娃臘腸狗因其對人及對狗的攻擊性所得分數遠高於平均值, 名列為榜首.

素來以壞脾氣著名的秋田犬比特犬則在"對狗的攻擊性"分數最高.
然而, 若他們真的有咬傷人類, 其傷害通常比愛打架的小型犬所做的嚴重多了.

Duffy教授解釋:"對某些犬種來說, 因為體型小, 就更容易產生恐懼性的攻擊行為.
因為人類或者別的狗對這些體型較小的狗來說, 非常具有威脅性."

她補充說明:
"有證據顯示小型犬常是其他狗攻擊的對象.
而且小型犬(特別是吉娃娃)也常在小孩的粗魯對待當中受傷,
所以小型犬的攻擊傾向的形成有可能是基於以往的負面經驗累積而來的."

最容易咬人的犬種則是傑克羅素梗, 澳洲牧牛犬, 可卡獵犬米格魯.

最沒有攻擊性的犬種是巴吉度, 黃金獵犬, 拉布拉多獵犬, 西伯利亞哈士奇, 伯恩山犬, 布列塔尼獵犬, 灰狗(Greyhound)以及惠比特.
有趣的是, 這些犬種當中, 有幾種也是著名的看家本領差以及低度領域防衛行為的, 顯示了這些犬種適合當寵物犬, 而不像吉娃娃和臘腸那樣適合看門. -----我是拉雪橇滴 不是來看門滴

有出色外型的狗, 通常可以彌補他們缺乏某些技巧的缺點.

Duffy教授解釋:"某些犬種光是外型和體積就比其他的狗還有恫嚇作用了,
即使他們其實根本沒有攻擊傾向." -----體型大 長的像狼也不是我的錯啊

在Genetics期刊的另外一項研究指出, 如同人類一般, 狗狗的行為模式似乎受到基因以及環境的影響.

Waltham Center for Pet Nutrition的基因科學家Paul Jones和他的研究團隊在分析犬類的DNA後,
已能找出DNA上與行為, 可塑性, 壽命, 以及體型, 重量, 毛色和身長的的基因.

Duffy博士說:"藉由這樣的研究, 我們可以解開基因如何影響犬種的生理和行為特質,
人們未來能為飼主研發出最適合他的寵物可食用的食物和藥品,
以增進他們的生活品質.
因為基因上對行為的影響並不代表這個行為天生註定不會改變."

最重要的是, 她建議"任何想要養狗的人們應該儘可能先了解那隻狗狗的過往的歷史和行為.
雖然就研究來說, 某些犬種是適合和兒童相處.
但是, 選擇受過良好訓練以及良好社會化並且沒有攻擊性的羅威那,
會比選擇有攻擊行為的拉布拉多好得多."


沒有不是的狗~~只有不是的主人
 

以下為Discovery News原文:




Dog Breeds Rated for Feistiness
Jennifer Viegas, Discovery News


June 26, 2008 -- Little dogs -- think Chihuahuas and Dachshunds -- tend to be feisty, while certain breeds, like Golden and Labrador Retrievers, are as mellow as their reputations suggest, found a new study that identified the most and least aggressive common dog breeds.

Although certain pooches appear to be more cantankerous than others, the study supports the old adage that "there are no bad dogs," since aggression is often balanced by other more beneficial attributes, such as watchdog skills.

"Most dogs are a mixed bag of positive and less desirable traits -- just like people," lead author Deborah Duffy, a research specialist at the University of Pennsylvania's Center for the Interaction of Animals and Society, told Discovery News.

Duffy and colleagues Yuying Hsu and James Serpell collected basic and behavior-related dog data from two separate groups.

The first consisted of members of 11 American Kennel Club recognized national breed clubs, such as The Labrador Retriever Club and The English Springer Spaniel Field Trial Association. The second involved an online survey posted at the university's Web site.

The study, which has been accepted for publication in the journal Applied Animal Behavior Science, represents one of the most extensive of its kind and is the first to report replicated findings of breed differences in aggression, since both of its data sets led to similar conclusions.

Chihuahuas and Dachshunds scored higher than average for aggression directed to both humans and dogs, putting them towards the top of the list.

Akitas and Pit Bull Terriers, which have "bad boy" reputations, mostly scored high for dog-directed aggression. When they did injure humans, however, the injuries tended to be more severe than those inflicted by the scrappy, smaller dogs.

"Small size very likely plays a large role in the development of fear-based aggression among some breeds," Duffy explained. "Smaller dogs may feel more threatened by other dogs and people -- a perception that may be well founded."

"There is some evidence that smaller breeds are more often the targets of aggression by other dogs," she added, "and small breeds, particularly Dachshunds, are more prone to injury due to rough handling by children, so this form of aggression among small breeds may be a learned response due to negative past experiences."

Other breeds with a greater tendency to bite humans included Jack Russell Terriers, Australian Cattle Dogs, American Cocker Spaniels and Beagles.

On the "least aggressive" end of the spectrum were Basset Hounds, Golden Retrievers, Labrador Retrievers, Siberian Huskies, Bernese Mountain Dogs, Brittany Spaniels, Greyhounds and Whippets. Interestingly enough, several of these dogs also rated low for "watchdog behavior" and "territorial defense" behaviors, suggesting that they tend to be lovable family pets, but are less vigilant watchdogs than Chihuahuas and Dachshunds.

Having a tough appearance, however, can make up for a lack of skill.

"Certain breeds, through either their reputation or their size, are inherently more intimidating than others even if they show little or no aggressive behavior," Duffy explained.

A more complete list of the breeds included in the study and how they rated may be found here.

As in humans, behavioral patterns in dogs seem to arise from a combination of environmental influences and genetics. The DNA component is supported in a separate study published this week in the journal Genetics.

Paul Jones, a Mars Veterinary genetics researcher at the Waltham Center for Pet Nutrition, and his co-author identified locations in a dog's DNA that contain genes believed to contribute to behavior, trainability and longevity, as well as body and skull shape, weight, fur color and length.

"By applying this research approach, we may be able to decipher how genes contribute to physical or behavioral traits that affect many breeds," said Jones, who indicated future applications might include tailor-made foods and medicines, along with specific recommendations to individuals about what would be the "most lifestyle-appropriate pet for an owner."

Duffy countered that "just because there is a genetic component to behavior does not necessarily mean that it is predestined."

"Anyone looking to bring a dog into their home should find out as much as possible about the individual dog's history and temperament," she advised. "Certainly some breeds are better with children than others on average. However, it wouldn't make sense to pass up a well-socialized, well-trained, non-aggressive Rottweiler for an atypically aggressive Labrador Retriever."

資料來源:哈士奇家族

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  • 胖妮麻
  •  我們家的黃金兄妹兩還真的比吉娃娃還遜喔..
    比人家大卻還兇不過人家...
    看到吉娃娃都很害怕...呵呵!  
  • 小惡魔
  • 祝大家情人節&88節快樂唷~ 
  • 果揪在米國
  • 歐 ! 錢爸這篇借我,我要把這篇留起來 ~
    有一次啊,我在社區陪果揪散步,因為迎面走來的柏恩山犬,一直發出警戒的聲音
    搞的小揪在他靠近時,就給人家汪汪叫了起來
    又剛好有個小朋友在旁邊,再剛好社區人員經過看到,居然跑來跟我說,要去報告社區經理
    說我家狗狗有攻擊行為,我咧 ! ! ! ! &*&^$%&*

     
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